November 9th is a significant date in world history. Major historical developments and events occurred repeatedly on this date. For example in 1918, November 9 marked the end of the First World. In 1989, the same day coincided with the fall of Berlin Wall. Almost 200 years before that, Napoleon annexed France and became an emperor on November 9, 1799. As such, many historians believe that Modern History began and ended on the same date.
This article provides a detailed look at the top 10 significant events and historical developments that occurred on this monumental date. Raise your hand if you knew them already.
Treaty of Seville is signed between France, Great Britain and Spain, signalling the end of the Anglo-Spanish War. The treaty assigned the territories of Fort McMahon and Gibraltar to Great Britain and the Duchy of Parma to Spain. A future alliance with Austria came as a direct result of the terms of the Treaty of Seville.
18 Brumaire: Napoleon staged a coup d’état in France. He overthrew the French Directory and replaced it with the French consulate. The date signified the end of the French Revolution and the beginning of an empire which lasted until 1871.
Meiji Restoration signified great changes for Japan as it restored Imperial powers in Japan. The Japanese Shogunate resigned on this date and transferred its power to the emperor. The major reason for the Meiji Restoration was the Industrial Revolution in Europe. In isolation for centuries, Japan was behind other countries. Japanese thus tried to combine Western forces and traditions with its own to advance itself.
Great Boston Fire of 1872 was the biggest and the most costly in an urban region. It consumed 65 acres of land, 776 buildings and much of Boston’s financial sector. Although only 20 individuals fell victim to the fire, the cost totaled $73.5 million.
Theodore Roosevelt was the first sitting President to travel outside of the United States. He traveled to Panama to check on the construction of the Canal. As a fundamental believer in safety and rights for workers, he demanded better working and health conditions. This role earned him the Noble Peace Prize the same year.
The Great Lakes Storm of 1913 was a storm and hurricane which hit the Great Lakes region in the United States and Canada. It was the most powerful on November 9, overpowering and destroying 19 ships and killing 250 people in the process.
The year 1918 marked big changes for Europe. After fighting a costly and detrimental war, Kaiser Wilhelm II abdicates his power. Germany became a socialist republic on November 9, 1918. The abdication led to an armistice followed by the demilitarization of Germany. Many argue that WWI never ended on November 9 as tensions never ceased. Many problems were simply swept underneath the rug when Kaiser Wilhelm II abdicated.
Beer Hall Putch was being organized by Adolph Hitler on November 9, 1923. Inspired by Mussolini’s March on Rome, Hitler was organizing a revolution which sought to overthrow the German socialist government in Munich, Bavaria. Hitler was arrested for treason for his involvement in the coop. While in prison, he wrote Mein Kampf which outlined his beliefs about world domination. Many historians believe that the failed Beer Hall Putch rubbed more salt on Hitler’s wounds, antagonizing him even further.
After dividing Germany for more than 2 decades, the Berlin Wall finally falls on November 9th. Checkpoints are opened and migration is made possible for those secluded in East Germany. This was just the beginning of an end to the Cold War. Eventually a domino effect ensued and other nations withdrew their support for the Soviet Union.
Mary Robinson is elected as the first female Prime Minister of Ireland. During her 7 year term, Robinson altered and liberalized politics. She was a fundamental believer in human rights and worked with many organizations such United Nations. She also gave voice to lobbyists who had no say in politics before her assumption into power.