If you compare a sky scraper with a human body, you see that the 3 layers of skin are the paint, the plaster, and then the bricks. All the steel bars and joints and other construction material are like its organs.
Human anatomy! It is a scientific study of human body systems and the internal organs. Cells are the building blocks of a human life. Together they make tissues and a group of tissues makes an organ that performs a specific task. And not to forget, that each organ plays an important role in a body system.
Top 10 important organs of the human body are:
This organ is the master of all the actions and the organs of a human body. It is located in the head, usually close to the primary sensory organs for such senses as vision, hearing, balance, taste, and smell. In humans the largest part of the brain contains 15–33 billion brain cells known as neurons. These neurons communicate with one another by means of long fibers called axons, carrying trains of signal pulses to distant parts of the brain or body targeting specific cells.
Its functions are:
• Information processing
• Movement control
• Learning and memory
Diseases related to brain are:
• Meningitis – An inflammation of the lining around the brain or spinal cord, usually due to infection. Neck pain, headache, and confusion are common symptoms.
• Encephalitis – An inflammation of the brain tissue, usually due to infection.
• Brain abscess – A pocket of infection in the brain, usually caused by bacteria.
• Concussion – A brain injury that causes a temporary disturbance in brain function, sometimes with unconsciousness and confusion. Traumatic head injuries cause concussions.
• Any bleeding inside the brain, which may occur after a traumatic injury or due to high blood pressure.
• Brain tumor – Any abnormal tissue growth inside the brain, cause problems by the pressure they exert on the normal brain.
• Brain cancer
• An abnormally increased amount of brain fluid inside the skull because of improper circulation of the fluid.
• Stroke – Blood flow and oxygen are suddenly interrupted to an area of brain tissue, which then dies. The body part controlled by the damaged brain area may no longer function properly.
• Ischemic stroke – A blood clot suddenly develops in an artery, blocking blood flow and causing a stroke.
• Hemorrhagic stroke – Bleeding in the brain creates congestion and pressure on brain tissue, impairing healthy blood flow and causing a stroke.
• Transient ischemic attack – A temporary interruption of blood flow and oxygen to a part of the brain.
Another important organ of the human body without which human survival is next to impossible. It acts like pump circulating blood in the body. Blood containing carbon dioxide is provided to lungs for the exchange of gases where as blood containing oxygen is supplied to the human body through veins. It weighs 250 – 350 grams and is about the size of a fist.
• Enlarged Heart – usually caused by high blood pressure (hypertension) or coronary artery disease.
• Heart Attack
• Irregular Heart Rhythm
• Atrial Fibrillation – irregular heart beat
• Heart Rhythm Disorders – Irregular heart rhythms can cause the pumping function of the heart to fail.
• Heart Valve Disease
• Sudden Cardiac Death
• Congenital Heart Disease
• Heart Muscle Disease
• Fluid around the heart can be caused by various types of infections. This fluid can impair heart function.
• Marfan syndrome – This inherited genetic defect weakens connective tissues including those in the heart.
• Heart Murmurs caused due to flow of blood from a damaged valve.
Being the most important organ related to respiratory system, these lungs are located on the either sides of the heart. They are like air bags. Breathing in, expands them and breathing out contracts them.
Their function is to exchange oxygen with the carbon dioxide present in blood.
• Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease- Lung conditions defined by an inability to exhale normally, which causes difficulty breathing.
• Lung damage allows air to be trapped in the lungs. Difficulty blowing air out is its hallmark.
• Acute bronchitis – A sudden infection of the airways, usually by a virus.
• Cystic fibrosis – A genetic condition causing poor clearance of mucus from the bronchi. The accumulated mucus results in repeated lung infections.
• Pneumonia – An infection of the alveoli, usually by bacteria.
• Tuberculosis – A slowly progressive pneumonia caused by the bacteria.
• Emphysema – results from damage to the fragile connections between alveoli. Smoking is the usual cause.
• Fluids leak out of the small blood vessels of the lung into the air sacs and the surrounding area.
• Lung cancer has many forms, and may develop in any part of the lungs. Most often this is in the main part of the lung, in or near the air sacs.
It is a vital organ and existence of a human without liver is next to impossible. Thought technology has created some short term substitutes of liver, but for long term, research is still in process.
Liver has many functions:
• Detoxification of food
• Protein synthesis
• Hormone production
• Decomposition of red blood cells
Liver entertains many bio-chemical reactions that are important for function of a body and that why it always better not to drink too much alcohol.
Diseases related to liver are:
• Pale stools occur when a brown pigment, is absent from the stool.
• Dark urine
• Swelling of the abdomen, ankles and feet
• Excessive fatigue occurs from a generalized loss of nutrients, minerals and vitamins.
• Bruising and easy bleeding are other features of liver disease. The liver makes substances which help prevent bleeding. When liver damage occurs, these substances are no longer present and severe bleeding can occur.
Playing an important role in the digestive system, this organ lies between food pipe and the small intestine. It releases enzymes, acids and gastric juices which help in digestion by breaking food into smaller segments and converting them into breakable and adaptable organic substances.
Diseases related to stomach are:
• Gastritis – caused due over production of acids in the stomach. To some extent it depletes the inner layer and causes acidity problems.
• Gastro-paresis – caused due either blocking of the ends or in-efficient working of stomach. Food stays untreated and causes stomach-aches.
• Diarrhea – food when passed on to intestines for absorption of water, sometimes has viruses that stick to the walls of large intestine and prevents it from absorbing water. And so the liquid food directly passes out.
• Cancer – Stomach cancers usually occur due to fluctuations in acidity level and may present with vague symptoms of abdominal fullness, weight loss and pain.
These bean shaped organs, located in the abdominal cavity, are essential in the urinary system. They deal with the essential liquids in the body. You can say they work as water purifiers. They filter the water present in the water and the unwanted part is passed out where as the desired part is regulated in the body. Not only water, they act as filter for cleaning blood also.
Kidneys also maintain blood pressure via maintaining water level and salts in the body and also maintain an acid-base balance required in the system.
The kidney is approximately 11–14 cm in length, 6 cm wide and 4 cm thick.
Diseases related to kidneys are:
• Congenital obstruction of urinary tract
• Double kidneys, occurrence normally causes no complications, but can occasionally cause urine infections.
• Duplicate ureter.
• Horseshoe kidney.
• Renal agenesis – Failure of one kidney
• Unilateral small kidney
• Multicystic dysplastic
• Hydronephrosis – enlargement of one or both of the kidneys caused by obstruction of the flow of urine.
• Kidney stones
• Kidney tumours
• Nephrotic syndrome – large amount of protein in the blood enters the urine.
• Pyelonephritis – infection of the kidneys and is frequently caused by complication of a urinary tract infection.
These round shaped organs work as a communication medium. What you see is converted into electro-chemical pulses that can be read by neurons (or the brain cells) produce the desired action.
There are 3 types of diseases related to eye:
1. Infection or conjunctivitis.
2. Disorders related to lens displacement, iris and cornea shape change and retinal detachments.
3. Improper shape of eye cause diseases like farsightedness, short-sightedness or both. These can be fixed by wearing spectacles.
They are like pipes that connects stomach to anus. They release gastric juices and other liquids which separate the unwanted materials from the digestive food.
Intestines are divided into 2 types of categories:
1. Small Intestine
2. Large Intestine
The small intestine absorbs the desired nutrients and minerals (like sodium) where as the large intestine is concerned with the absorption of water only. They are also produce bacteria which converts the unwanted parts of digestive food into bio-degradable material by producing gases like methane.
Diseases related to intestines are:
• Inflammation of the intestines.
• Blockage of the intestines.
• Inflammation of respective internal sections of intestines.
• Colitis – inflammation of the large intestine.
• Inflammation of the appendix. This is a potentially fatal disease if left untreated.
• An auto-immune response is triggered in intestinal cells by digestion of gluten proteins. Ingestion of proteins found in wheat, barley and rye, causes many problems in the small intestine.
• Crohn’s disease – affects the entire gastrointestinal path
• Ulcerative colitis – limited to the large intestine.
• Entero-viruses are named by their transmission-route through the intestine
• Irritable bowel syndrome – the most common functional disorder of the intestine. Functional constipation and chronic functional abdominal pain are other disorders of the intestine.
• Diverticular disease is a condition that is very common in older people in industrialized countries. It usually affects the large intestine but has been known to affect the small intestine as well. Diverticulosis occurs when pouches form on the intestinal wall. Once the pouches become inflamed it is known as diverticulitis.
• Chronic functional abdominal pain
• Colorectal cancer
9. The Veins
A vein is like an elastic pipe connecting different organs. It acts as a passage for transportation of blood. Most veins carry deoxygenated blood from the tissues back to the heart, exceptions are the pulmonary and umbilical veins, both of which carry oxygenated blood to the heart.
Veins are classified in a number of ways, including superficial vs. deep, pulmonary vs. systemic, and large vs. small.
• Superficial veins – their course is close to the surface of the body and also they have no corresponding arteries.
• Deep veins – as the name says,they are the ones that are found deeper in the boys
• Communicating veins – they connect superficial veins to deep veins.
• Pulmonary veins – they deliver oxygenated blood from the lungs to the heart.
• Systemic veins – they drain the tissues of the body and deliver deoxygenated blood to the heart.
There are 2 types of problems related to veins:
In a body, when fats increase in quantity that the desired level, they block the veins and so clotting of blood takes place.
2. Blood deficiency
Deficiency of blood dries up the passage which can lead to cracks and severe break downs.
10. The Pituitary
Weighing 0.5 grams, the pituitary gland resembles the size of a pea. Resting in a bone cavity, this small organ releases 9 types of hormones, each functioning differently.
• Blood pressure
• Some aspects of pregnancy, childbirth and breast milk production
• Sex organ functions in both males and females
• Thyroid gland function
• conversion of food into energy
• Water and osmolarity regulation in the body
• Water balance via the control of re-absorption of water by the kidneys
• Temperature regulation
• Pain relief
Due to over or under production of these hormones, certain diseases can occur:
• Cushing’s disease
• Growth hormone deficiency
• Syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone
• Sheehan syndrome