Illnesses, such as Tuberculosis and Smallpox, wars with Europeans and interactions with whites led to the decimation and extinction of numerous native tribes across the world. Several tribes amalgamated with other tribes, while others became extinct with time. Here are the prime 10 Native Tribes which have faced extinction after European contact.
1. Beothuk Tribes:
The Beothuk was a dark and tall Native tribe with black hair and dark eyes. They lived for a huge number of years prior to the Vikings in present day Newfoundland. When Europeans under the leadership of John Cabot started exploiting lumber and fish inside the location, the Beothuk were forced out of their land. The worry of white individuals, tuberculosis and malnutrition decimated the population by 1700s.
By the beginning of the 19th century, the Beothuk were reduced to a small refugee population living along the Exploits River system and attempting to subsist on the inadequate resources of the interior. Although a succession of Newfoundland governors had, since the middle of the 18th century, attempted to establish friendly contact with the Beothuk, it was probably too late to change a pattern which had existed for perhaps 250 years. Shanawdithit, the last known Beothuk, died in St. John’s, Newfoundland in 1829.
They were a group of Native Americans, who played an integral part in Texan history. Disease, conflicts with Europeans and loss of territory led to their extinction. The tribe had a significant role in the Texas War of Independence as they sided with the United States over Mexico.
Smallpox, war and treaties signed with United States of America contributed to Mandans’ extinction. By 1837, their population was decimated to 125 men and women together with the outbreak of smallpox, which they were never immune to. In 1934, the Mandans merged with two other tribes together under the Indian Reorganization Act. The final pure Mandan died in 1971. The Mandans lived in the forests along the Missouri River within the western land now referred to as North Dakota. The Mandans were overall farmers and grew beans, corn, squash, and sunflowers. Many other Mandans were also buffalo hunters. Their way of life was determined by the buffalo hunt.
The Mandans lived in a circular type of residence known as a lodge. Each lodge was built over a shallow pit and covered with sod. Sod is earth; reduce into blocks or mats that are certainly held collectively by the grass and its roots. Many households lived in each lodge. At times as lots of as 60 people with their dogs lived in one particular lodge. In the center of the lodge was a fireplace beneath a hole within the roof. The hole let out smoke in the fire. Along the outer walls in the lodge were beds for every loved ones.
The Chisca were a tribe living in eastern Tennessee and southwestern Virginia. When waging wars against Europeans especial Hernando deSoto, the tribe was initially successful. They were, however, defeated by Juan Pardo of Spain. In the late 1700s, the tribe combined with the Shawnee under the name Chaskepe. By 18th century, they Chisca were extinct and their towns were burnt down by colonists.
Previously living on Vancouver Island and Barcland Island, they were part of the Nootka group of tribes. Contact with Europeans and smallpox is blamed for their extinction.
For about 65,000 years Bo culture and language existed in the Great Adaman region of India. The tribe, culture and language associated with Bo became extinct in 2010 when its last surviving member, Boa Senior died.
Boa Sr, aged about 85, was the final native from the Andaman Islands who was fluent in Bo. Named after the tribe itself, Bo is one of the 10 Good Andamanese languages, which are believed to date back towards the pre-Neolithic period when the earliest humans walked out of Africa.
7. Tasmanian Aborigines:
An indigenous people in the state of Tasmania were decimated by diseases. The Black War between 1828 and 1832 between British colonists and Tasmanian Aborigines also contributed to the group’s extinction.
By 1833, George Augustus Robinson persuaded the 200 surviving Aboriginal Tasmanians to surrender themselves with assurances that they would be protected, provided for and eventually have their lands returned to them. These ‘assurances’ were all lies – promises made to the survivors that played on their desperate hopes for reunification with lost family and community members. The assurances were solely made to remove the Aboriginal people from mainland Van Diemen’s Land. The survivors were moved to Wybalenna Aboriginal Establishment on Flinders Island, where diseases continued to reduce their numbers even further. In 1847, the last 47 living inhabitants of Wybalenna were transferred to Oyster Cove, south of Hobart. Two individuals, Trugernanner (1812–1876) andFanny Cochrane Smith (1834–1905), were considered to have been the last people solely of Tasmanian descent.
Ona were the last group of natives to be reached by explorers. They used to live in what is presently known as Chile and Argentina. Although they had good relations with explorers, their numbers decreased by early 1900s. They were extinct by mid-20th century, despite efforts made by Christian Missionaries.
They were an indigenous population living in present day Bahamas. With the arrival of Europeans and raids, the Tainos were driven out of their homes. In 18th century, the tribes were decimated by smallpox. The Spanish took many of the Tainos women and began to interbreed. They are now extinct, with the exception of many mestizos.
Powhatans were confederation of tribes in Virginia. They spoke Algonquin languages known as Powhatan and Virginia Algonquin. Many tribes of the Powhatan became extinct and now only 8 are left.
News Update (04-04-13)
Approximately 34 Native Tribes in Columbia are facing extinction, according to an article released by United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees.
An increase in murders, death-threats, and the forced recruitment of indigenous youth into armed groups are just some of the dangers reportedly facing Colombia’s Indians. Internal displacement is also cited as a major issue that disproportionately affects Colombia’s tribal peoples. Of the country’s four million internal refugees, Indians make up 15% of the total, despite the fact that they represent just 2% of the national population.
In 2010, the leader Luis Socarrás Pimienta of the Wayúu tribe was shot-dead by an alleged paramilitarian outside his home in the northern Colombian province of la Guajira. According to the report, murders of indigenous Colombians rose by approximately 63% between 2008 and 2009, and thirty-three members of Colombia’s Awa tribe were killed in 2009 alone.