Last year we posted an article titled Top 10 Failed States (2011). The article highlighted Top 10 countries that were identified by Foreign Policy Magazine’s Fund for Peace index as failed states on the alert or worsening failed states. The list combined the two and examined countries that were in need of our attention.
This year, we compare and contrast the list and see where there has been improvement. In many cases there were slight improvements. In others, things look bleak.
Six African nations are still occupying the top 10 of an annual failed-state index, including Somalia, which heads the list for the fifth straight year after continued struggles with lawlessness and piracy. On this list, we have 7 countries from Africa, including Libya which worsened since 2011 reports.
Let’s hope next year’s report will be better for each of these top 10 failed states.
Somalia has once again topped the Failed States Index for the 5th year in a row. Widespread lawlessness, ineffective government, terrorism, insurgencies and crime are big determining factors of why it’s number one on this top 10 list.
Somalia did not top this Top 10 List’s list of failed nations of 2011; however, I feel that this year it deserves this status. For 5 years, nothing has been done to correct the issues inside the country. The chaos is constant.
I disagree with Foreign Policy Fund for Peace’s assessment here. I believe that the civil war in Syria is leading the country in the opposite direction. For the past two years, there’s been nothing but brutality, chaos, political instability as well as widespread slaughter.
Syria’s many denominational groups lived together under the repression and human rights abuses that can characterize the rule of Bashar Al Asasd.
The situation remains quite hostile and this much is for certain: the regime’s once daunting aura has crumbled before the people’s eyes. Al Assad cannot even assure control over his country, never the capital, Damascus. The fuming cities of Homs, Hama and Idib are in worse condition than ever before.
Looking ahead, I agree with the Washington Post that the United States and its Western allies need to encourage a more stable transition of power and wherever possible, maintain national institutions, such as state services and the army, before shifting control of them to a new, elected democratic leadership. That’s what happened in the mostly bloodless revolutions of Egypt and Yemen, where the United States pushed the resistance movements to overthrow the dictators.
The United States made a half-hearted attempt to deal with this problem, by reassuring and supporting “military councils” in Aleppo, Idlib and other areas. The idea was that these groups would foster disciplined command and control among the rebels — helping them overthrow Assad and also providing some structure for orderly transition and governance. There is one problem with this: the military councils have largely dissolved.
Why number 2 on the top 10 list? It moved 8 spots in the wrong direction between 2011 and 2012.
3. Democratic Republic of Congo
People in the Democratic Republic of Congo expect very little from the state, government or civil servants. In fact, ordinary Congolese citizens frequently repeat expressions like “the state is dying but not yet dead” or “the state is ever present but completely useless”. It seems there can be little argument that DR Congo is indeed a failed state. It’s been on the Foreign Policy The Fund for Peace list at #3 for 2 years in a row.
The average person living in the country is poor, hungry and under-informed. The government is unable to provide decent education or health services. The country – two-thirds of the size of Western Europe – is a battleground. The citizens of DR Congo live in fear from the brutal militias that still control parts of the eastern provinces, where rape has become almost normal. In fact, UN has called DRC the Rape Capital of the World.
It moved up 2 spots to #3 since 2011.
4. Sudan/South Sudan
Foreign Policy’s The Fund for Peace assessed South Sudan this year for the first time following the declaration of independence in the second half of 2011. Although the FSI did not formally rank South Sudan because it was an incomplete year of data, the young nation has a place on this list, immediately behind its northern neighbor, Sudan. South Sudan’s brittle infrastructure, severe poverty, weak government and tense relations with Sudan continue to be a major concern.
During the recent Second Civil War (1999-2005), roughly two million people have died as a result of war, famine and disease, caused by internal conflicts. Four million people in southern Sudan have been banished and exiled at least once during the war. The civilian death toll is one of the highest of any war since World War II. The conflict officially ended with the signing of a peace agreement in January 2005, but things did not get better.
Darfur Genocide: In 2003, two rebel movements in Darfuri – the Sudan Liberation Army (SLA) and the Justice and Equality Movement (JEM) instigated an armed resistance movement against the Sudanese government, sighting concerns about the ostracism and the failure of the government to protect the people from attacks by nomads.
The Sudanese government, under the leadership of Omar al Bashir, retorted by unleashing Arab militias known as Janjaweed. Sudanese forces and Janjaweed militia attacked hundreds of villages throughout Darfur; over 400 villages were completely destroyed and millions of people were forced to leave their homes.
Through the conflict, which was determined to be a genocide, African farmers and others in Darfur were being systematically displaced and murdered by the Janjaweed. The genocide in Darfur has taken the lives of 400,000 and displaced over 2,500,000 people. Over one hundred people continue to die each day; that is roughly five thousand every month. The Sudanese government begs to differ with these estimates and denies any linkage to the Janjaweed.
Since gaining independence from France in 1960, Chadian politics have been pigeonholed by uncertainty, volatility and coups d’état. The consolidation of power under Francois Tombalbaye led to an exacerbated religious and ethnic divide, which ultimately led to civil war. Political infighting led to periodic eruptions of violence, culminating in the ascendancy of Idriss Deby to the presidency in 1991.
Though Deby has seemingly supported augmented democratization, the results of the various multi-party elections held since 1996 have widely been viewed as defective. Following the 2010 Chad-Sudan peace accord, relations between the two countries improved dramatically, ending the long-standing proxy war between them.
Since 2011, Chad’s political and economic situation has gotten better significantly. The improvement in Chadian-Sudanese relations has led to a fall in the number of refugees and displaced persons. However, though oil extraction has granted the government more than US$754 billion in additional revenues, poverty-alleviation projects still continue to be quite low. Rising aggressiveness and volatility in nearby countries such as Nigeria and Mali could still spill over into Chad, threatening its current improving stability.
It moved down 2 spots from #3 to #5.